Servo-idemiology of leptospirosis in dogs on the island of Barbados (2023)

Cited by (46)

  • Time for change? A systematic review with meta-analysis of leptospira infecting dogs to assess vaccine compliance in Brazil

    2023, Preventive Veterinary Medicine

    Dogs are thought to be highly exposed to the environmental pathogen leptospira, which can act as potential sources of infection for zoonotic transmission. Vaccination is the cornerstone strategy for preventing disease and urinary leakage in dogs, but the success of vaccination depends largely on the similarity of locally circulating leptospira to those used in vaccine formulations. To provide evidence of vaccine compatibility and to assess whether there are regional differences in serogroup distribution, we performed a systematic review including meta-analysis of serological data, characterization of leptospiral isolates and risk factors for seropositivity in dogs from Brazil. Studies reporting canine leptospirosis in the Brazilian territory were eligible for inclusion and the method was validated by PROSPERO under registration CRD42020204187. Six electronic databases were searched and data on population, methods and results were extracted. 61 studies were included to access serogroup distribution and risk factors with an overall positivity rate of 19.7% in the dog population. Serological evidence indicates that Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Autumnalis are the most common serogroups. Twenty-eight records were included to access leptospiral strains isolated in Brazil, with n=56 strains characterized as serogroups Canicola, n=37 as Icterohaemorrhagiae, n=2 as Pomona and n=1 strain as Australis and Sejroe each. Risk factor analysis showed that stray dogs, puppies or older dogs, male dogs and dogs kept by educators with poor social and economic conditions have a high risk of infection. The current study revealed generally good compatibility of leptospiral strains circulating locally with those used in canine leptospirosis vaccines in Brazil. The circulation of serovars Pomona and Grippotyphosa has not been consistently demonstrated, and the inclusion of these serovars in topical vaccines cannot be supported by our results. The results also provided serological evidence for the circulation of Serogroup Autumnalis among the studied populations.

  • Leptospira seroprevalence in animals in the Caribbean: a systematic review

    2018, Tropical Law

    Quote excerpt:

    This absence of serovar Canicola has been observed in other countries. This change in the predominant Leptospira spp. was also documented in a study by Weekes et al. (1997), on the island of Barbados. They reported that serovar Autumnalis was the predominant serovar in Leptospira infection in dogs.

    This systematic review summarizes the data published onLeptospiraseroprevalence, serovar diversity and distribution among animal species in the Caribbean. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines and checklist, relevant articles were identified and data were extracted and recorded. The review deliveredLeptospiraseroprevalence data from 16 Caribbean islands (Barbados, Trinidad, Grenada, Puerto Rico, Saint Croix, St. Kitts and Nevis, Jamaica, Antigua, Carriacou, Dominica, Guadalupe, Martinique, Monserrat, St. Lucia, St. Maarten and St. Vincent ) in different animal species. A review of the literature revealed the limited amount of data available from a limited number of islands. Many of the studies conducted have recorded seroprevalences based on variable and small sample sizes. In addition, the serovar panels used for MAT were not consistent between studies. The review shows thatLeptospiraexposure in a given geographic location may change with time and with climatic and environmental conditions, emphasizing the need for ongoing monitoring in tropical countries where the climate supports sustainedLeptospirain the residential environment. Particular attention should be paid to standardizing MAT panels and protocols and providing training to all laboratories involved in testing. Additional animal and environmental experiments to isolate and identify circulationLeptospiraspp. in a geographical region should be actively pursued. This knowledge is important for implementing geographically specific control programs, as risk factors forLeptospiraTransfer is favored by several factors such as changes in climatic conditions, urbanization, degradation of wildlife habitats, import/export of animals, increase in adventure travel and water-related recreational activities.

  • Evaluation of standard diagnostic Leptospira IgM ELISA for the diagnosis of acute Leptospirosis in Lao PDR

    2012, Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

    Quote excerpt:

    Laboratory diagnosis of acute Leptospira infection in endemic settings is problematic because there is a lack of simple, inexpensive, well-characterized assays that are diagnostically informative. The serological 'gold standard' is the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), which requires paired samples, significant technical resources and training, and is in some cases not useful for acute patient management.1 Simple IgM antibody detection-based ELISAs are marketed as accurate for the diagnosis of Leptospira infection, but their accuracy depends on the background immunity of the local population and the number of days of illness.2

    The diagnostic tool for the standard diagnosisLeptospiraIgM ELISA for detection of acute leptospirosis was evaluated in febrile adults hospitalized in Vientiane, Laos. Using the cut-off [optical density (OD) ≥0.75] suggested by the manufacturer, the assay showed limited diagnostic power with a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 41% compared toLeptospiramicroscopic agglutination test, the serological gold standard. However, reevaluation of the diagnostic cut-off to an OD of 1.7 showed improved diagnostic accuracy overall (sensitivity 70%; specificity 78%).

  • Knowledge, attitudes and practices of Trinidadian households regarding leptospirosis and related problems

    2011, International Health

    Quote excerpt:

    Thus, people living in areas with poor sanitation are more prone to contracting the disease due to the increased presence of these mammals. Other animals of public health concern include dogs9 and cattle.10 The Caribbean and Latin American region has been identified as a 'wide leptospirosis endemic zone';11 but in many countries in this region, public awareness of the disease remains low. .12

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that is underreported in many countries, including Trinidad and Tobago, due to a low level of awareness of the disease. A Leptospirosis Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) survey was conducted among 800 households across Trinidad to determine the level of awareness of the disease in the country. Of the participants, 52.4% had heard of leptospirosis, but about half of these had no signs or symptoms of the disease. Knowledge of leptospirosis was not related to people's level of education, but to geographic location. About 82% of participants engaged in at least one high-risk activity, the most common of which was walking outdoors barefoot. The animal most of the participants interacted with was the dog. Of the 53% of participants who had seen a mouse or rat in their home, 5% used the regional company's free monitoring services. About 66% of the participants were not satisfied with the services provided by the regional company. There was a positive attitude towards general health and good sanitation practices among the population of Trinidad, but there was also a lack of knowledge about leptospirosis. The low level of awareness of leptospirosis in Trinidad makes it a public health problem, as it is often confused with dengue, which is better known in the country.

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Selected articles (6)

  • Research Article

    Reducing the incidence of Q fever endocarditis: 27 years of experience from a national reference center

    Journal of Infection, Volume 68, Issue 2, 2014, p. 141-148

    We conducted an observational study to evaluate the impact of our antibioprophylaxis protocols implemented in 2000 on the incidence of Q fever endocarditis diagnosed between 1985 and 2011 in our French reference center.

    Endocarditis was diagnosed according to modified Duke Criteria, serological and PCR results. Our recommendations for prophylaxis consist of systematic echocardiography and antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with acute Q fever and risk factors for the development of endocarditis.

    In the past 27 years, we have diagnosed 4231 acute Q fever and 818 endocarditis. Despite a significantly increased number of acute Q fever diagnoses and the use of systematic PCR testing of valves allowing incidental Q fever endocarditis diagnoses, we observed a decrease in Q fever endocarditis. The number of cases has decreased from 316, representing 18% of newly diagnosed cases of Q fever between 1998 and 2004, to 225, representing 11% of cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2011.

    We believe this decrease was a result of our prophylaxis strategies. If this assumption is true, we may have prevented more than 150 cases of Q-fever endocarditis in France during the last 10 years.

  • Research Article

    Q fever prevention and vaccination: knowledge and attitudes of Australian livestock farmers for a One Health approach

    One Health, bind 12, 2021, artikel 100232

    Livestock farmers are at risk of contracting Q fever, a zoonosis transmitted to humans through animals such as cattle, sheep and goats. Australia has a significant Q fever burden, particularly among farmers. A One Health approach involves cross-sectoral collaboration between animal, human and environmental health and is the preferred framework for Q fever prevention.

    In 2019, cattle, sheep and goat farmers were invited to participate in an online survey to measure the perception of Q fever and its incidence. Participants were recruited through member newsletters and social media. Descriptive analyzes and logistic regressions were performed.

    A total of 351 farmers completed the survey. Most respondents (80%) had been farmers for ≥ 20 years with sheep and beef cattle as primary livestock. 71% reported knowledge of Q fever, and 85% determined infection by inhalation of contaminated dust was most likely. The majority of respondents (97%) knew about the Q fever vaccine and 95% agreed that it was effective in preventing disease, but 42% remained unvaccinated. Reported barriers to vaccination included poor access to a trained physician and the time and cost associated with vaccination. Most farmers (≥91%) believed that subsidized vaccination and better awareness would promote higher uptake.

    While respondents' knowledge of Q fever was good, their practices regarding prevention of airborne transmission were poor. Farmers will benefit from adherence to dust and aerosol transmission prevention practices. A government-industry health partnership is needed to promote Q fever awareness and address low vaccination rates among livestock producers through funding vaccination programs.

  • Research Article

    Limited humoral and cellular responses to Q fever vaccination in older adults with risk factors for chronic Q fever

    Journal of Infection, bind 67, hæfte 6, 2013, s. 565-573

    In the Netherlands, people at risk of chronic Q fever were vaccinatedCoxiella burnetiiwith the inactivated whole-cell vaccine Q-vax®. We wanted to measure the immune responsesC. burnetiisix and twelve months after vaccination in this relevant population.

    In 260 vaccinees, antibody reactions were assessed by immunofluorescence test (IFA), complement fixation test and ELISA. The cellular immune responses were assessed by measurementC. burnetii-specific production of interferon (IFN)-γ in the blood. Serological results from 200 individuals with previous Q fever were used for comparison.

    At six months, 46% of the vaccinated showed low IFA antibody titers and 67% had a positive IFN-γ assay; After twelve months both were 60%. In contrast, individuals with previous Q fever were 99.5% seropositive at six and twelve months, with relatively higher titers of IFA. Interestingly, vaccinees with a positive IFN-γ assay before vaccination showed a higher seroconversion rate than IFN-γ-negative vaccinees: 74% vs. 41% (P<0.001).

    The immune response to Q-vax®vaccination is lower and limited to a smaller proportion than found after Q fever in the past and than previously described after vaccination, suggesting reduced vaccine immunogenicity in this high-risk population. A positive pre-vaccination IFN-γ assay in seronegative vaccinees is likely to indicate pre-existing immunity, resulting in boosting by vaccination.

  • Research Article

    Structure-property relationships of orthorhombic [(CH3)3NCH2COO]2(CuCl2)3 2H2O

    Journal of Solid State Chemistry, bind 212, 2014, s. 205-212

    Large single crystals of orthorhombic[(CH3)3NCH2COO]2(CuCl2)3·2H2Owith dimensions up to 40×40×30mm3were grown from aqueous solutions. The elastic and piezoelastic coefficients were derived from ultrasonic resonance frequencies and their displacements with variation of pressure, respectively, using the plate resonance technique. Additionally, the thermal expansion coefficients were determined between 95K and 305K by dilatometry. The elastic behavior at ambient conditions is dominated by the two-dimensional network of strong hydrogen bonds in the (001) plane, leading to a corresponding pseudo-tetragonal anisotropy of the longitudinal elastic stiffness. However, the variation of elastic properties with pressure, as well as the thermal expansion, show strong deviations from the pseudo-tetragonal symmetry. These deviations are probably correlated with slopes of the elongated tri-nuclear betaine-CuCl2– aquatic complexes. Neither the thermal expansion nor the specific heat capacity gives any indication of a phase transition in the investigated temperature range.

  • Research Article

    Unusual clinical presentation of leptospirosis in a cat

    Clinical Veterinary Review, bind 49, udgave 3, 2014, s. 115-122

    A sterilized 4-year-old cat, which lived in contact with hunting dogs, was presented after several days of vomiting and diarrhea. She was in a state of shock, hyperesthetic and handling was painful. She had obvious inflammatory lesions on her auricles, abdominal skin and toes. Proteinuria was elevated without significant sediment. Blood analysis revealed prerenal azotemia and hyperglobulinemia. An abdominal ultrasound examination showed nephropathy and an echomodified pancreas (snap fPL test negative). A search for anti-nuclear factors was negative. PCR blood analyzes were weakly positive forLeptospiraspp. and negative forEhrlichiaspp. AndAnaplasmaspp. A treatment based on cefovecin and methylprednisolone (5 days) and 14 days later doxycycline (4 weeks) was prescribed. The cat made a full recovery. A double serological test performed at 5-week intervals showed significant seroconversion for Leptospira serogroup Sejroë serovar Saxkoebing (snap FeLV/FIV combo test negative). This case shows that cats can develop clinical leptospirosis without an obvious cause of immunosuppression, with symptoms partly similar to those of the subacute form in dogs and peculiarities. The Sejroë serogroup must henceforth be included in serological research if there is a clinical suspicion of leptospirosis in cats.

    A 4-year-old, sterilized female cat, in contact with hunting dogs, presented with vomiting and diarrhea for a few days, in a state of shock, hyperaesthetic and painful to handle, with marked inflammatory lesions of the ear horn, skin of the ear. stomach and fingers. Analyzes reveal significant proteinuria without significant pellet, prerenal azotemia, and hyperglobulinemia. Abdominal ultrasound shows nephropathy and pancreas with altered echo density (negative fPL snap test). The dosage of antinuclear factors is negative, and the PCR analyzes on blood are weakly positiveLeptospiraspp. (negative forEhrlichiaspp. AtAnaplasmaspp.). A treatment based on cefovecin and methylprednisolone (5 days) and then 14, doxycycline (4 weeks) is prescribed. The cat will make a full recovery. A double serology 5 weeks apart shows significant seroconversion for Leptospira serogroup Sejroë, serovar Saxkoebing (negative FelV and FIV combo snap test). This case shows that cats can develop clinical leptospirosis without any obvious cause of immunosuppression, with symptoms similar to those of the subacute canine form and with idiosyncrasies; The Sejroë serogroup should therefore from now on be included in serological research in cases of clinical suspicion in cats.

  • Research Article

    Urban dogs in rural areas: Human-mediated movements shape dog populations in southern Chile

    Preventive veterinary medicine, volume 135, 2016, pp. 59-66

    Management strategies for dog populations and their diseases include reproductive control, culling, and vaccination. However, the effectiveness of these strategies can be severely compromised by human-mediated dog movements. If immigration is important, then the place of origin of human-imported dogs will be fundamental in defining the spatial scales at which population management and research must be applied. In this context, the main objective of our study was to determine the spatial extent of the demographic processes of dogs in rural areas and the proportion of dogs that could be designated as immigrants at several spatial scales. To achieve our goal, we surveyed households in a landscape in southern Chile. Through interviews, we were able to obtain information about the demographics of dogs in this rural environment, the human impact on dog deaths and births, the areas of origin of dogs living in rural areas, and the spatial extent of human-mediated dog movements. We found that most rural dogs (64.1%) were urban dogs brought to the countryside (40.0%) or adopted dogs previously abandoned on the country roads (24.1%). Some dogs were brought from areas as far as 700 km from the study area. Human-mediated movements of dogs, particularly from urban areas, appear to play a fundamental role in rural dog population dynamics. As a result, local efforts to control dog populations or their diseases are unlikely to succeed if conducted in isolation simply because dogs may be brought in from surrounding urban areas or even distant locations. We suggest that efforts to manage or study dog ​​populations and associated diseases should be conducted using a multi-scale approach.

Copyright © 1997 Published by Elsevier B.V.

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